As the seasons change, so does the temperature in your home. In the winter, you want a warm and comfortable environment while in the summer you want a cool and refreshing one. And while you may have traditionally relied on two different devices to heat and cool your home — a furnace for winter and an air conditioner for summer — there is a third option that can do both: a heat pump.
What Is a Heat Pump?
A heat pump is a mechanical-compression cycle device that reversibly transfers thermal energy between two heat reservoirs. In essence, it’s an all-in-one heating and cooling system.
During the winter, it extracts thermal energy from the external environment, raises its temperature, and transfers it to the internal environment. When the weather warms up, it reverses the direction of thermal energy transfer by absorbing heat from the internal environment and releasing it into the external environment.
Types of Heat Pumps
There are two main types of heat pumps: air-source and ground-source. As the name suggests, air-source heat pumps transfer thermal energy between your home and the outside air. They are the most common type of heat pump and are typically used in moderate climates.
Air-source heat pumps are less expensive than ground-source heat pumps and are easier to install. They can also be used in a wider range of applications, such as ductless mini-splits, which provide heating and cooling to specific areas of your home.
The biggest downside to air-source heat pumps is that they’re less efficient in colder climates. They rely on the air outside for thermal energy, and cold air has less of this energy than warm air.
Ground-source heat pumps, also known as geothermal heat pumps, transfer thermal energy between your home and the ground. They are typically used in colder climates and are more efficient than air-source heat pumps.
The main disadvantage of ground-source heat pumps is that they require a more complex installation process, which can be more expensive than other options. They need to be connected to a network of underground pipes, known as a ground loop, which circulates the refrigerant.
However, ground-source heat pumps generally have lower operating costs than air-source heat pumps. They also have a longer lifespan as they are not exposed to the elements in the same way that air-source heat pumps are.
How Do Heat Pumps Work?
The process of evaporating and condensing the refrigerant is what enables the heat pump to transfer thermal energy. The refrigerant used in a heat pump is a special type of fluid that can easily be converted from a gas to a liquid and vice versa. This process is known as the refrigerant cycle.
The refrigerant starts off in the evaporator, where it is in a liquid state. As the refrigerant passes through the coils, it absorbs heat from the surrounding air, causing it to evaporate.
The refrigerant then moves to the compressor, where it is compressed and turned into a high-pressure gas. This high pressure causes the refrigerant to release its heat, which raises the temperature of the coils in the condenser.
After that, the refrigerant moves to the expansion valve. Here, the high pressure is released, and the refrigerant expands back into a liquid. The expansion valve also helps to cool the refrigerant, which absorbs heat from the coils in the evaporator.
This process then repeats itself, with the refrigerant continuing to cycle through the heat pump’s coils. The result is a continuous transfer of thermal energy, which is used to heat or cool your home.
Advantages of a Heat Pump
One of the top advantages of heat pumps is that they can provide both heating and cooling. This makes them a versatile solution for year-round comfort.
When you don’t have to rely on two entirely separate systems, you can save money on installation costs. This also reduces the amount of space that your HVAC system takes up, which can be beneficial if you have a small home or want to maximize the space in your basement.
Heat pumps are significantly more efficient than traditional heating and cooling systems because they don’t generate their own heat. Rather, they simply transfer it from one place to another. As a result, new energy isn’t needed to maintain the desired temperature in your home.
In fact, the standard heat pump can transfer up to 300% more energy than the amount of electrical energy it uses. Conversely, most electrical and gas-powered HVAC systems only have an efficiency of around 80-90%, meaning that they are continually losing energy. This increased efficiency results in lower operating costs and a more manageable energy bill each month.
Another advantage of heat pumps is that they have fewer moving parts than traditional HVAC systems. With fewer things that can break down or require repair, this translates to even greater savings.
Unlike standard heating systems, heat pumps don’t use open flames or produce combustion gases. This makes them much safer to operate as there is a significantly lower risk of fire or carbon monoxide poisoning.
Disadvantages of a Heat Pump
Installing a heat pump can be a significant investment. While the long-term savings are significant, the initial cost may be more than you’re comfortable paying.
As with any mechanical system, there is always the potential for something to go wrong. While heat pumps are designed for long-term reliability, repairs can be expensive, and replacement parts may be difficult to find.
Heat pumps are also less effective in extremely cold weather. While they can still operate in freezing temperatures, their efficiency decreases, and they may not be able to maintain the desired temperature in your home.
Should You Get a Heat Pump?
Here in Wisconsin, heat pumps are becoming increasingly popular as a primary heating source. The cold winters and mild summers mean that a heat pump can provide efficient and effective heating and cooling solutions for most of the year. However, when the extreme cold hits, you may need to supplement your heat pump with a backup heating system like a boiler or furnace. This is something that our team can help you with when designing your custom HVAC system.
If you’re building a new home or looking to replace your current HVAC system with a more efficient option, a heat pump may be the right choice for you. However, the decision to install a heat pump should always be made in consultation with a qualified HVAC contractor.
When you turn to Southport Home Services, we can help you determine whether a heat pump is the best option for your home. We’ll also help you select the right model and size for your needs and install it properly to ensure optimal performance.
Our team has been serving Wausau and all of central Wisconsin since 2005, and we’re here for all of your heating, cooling, indoor air quality, and plumbing needs. Even if a heat pump isn’t right for you, we can help you choose the best possible solution for your home. To learn more about our services, contact us today.